How can children's toys pass multiple tests?
According to the white paper "2013 National Imported Toys Quality Status" issued by the General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine, China currently has nearly 0.223 billion children and infants under the age of 14, accounting for 16.5 percent of the country's population, constituting a huge toy consumer group. Children's love for toys is innate, so many parents regard it as the "first teacher" to develop children's intelligence ". In recent years, with the continuous improvement of consumption level, China's toy consumption has maintained a rapid growth.
At any time, the safety of toys should be the first consideration, because the way children explore the world is different from that of adults. In addition to playing and listening, he will smell it, and even often put toys in his mouth to bite and knock hard. In addition, due to the sensitivity of children's skin and lack of awareness of prevention, and weak self-protection ability, in the process of playing with toys, potentially harmful parts or substances in toys can cause serious harm to children's physical and mental health by swallowing, chewing, licking and inhaling. It is reported that there are thousands of accidents of children's disability caused by toy safety or improper use in China every year. Toy safety has become the focus of social concern.
On December 30, 2005, the General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine and the State Certification and Accreditation Administration issued the Catalogue of Toy Products on the Implementation of Compulsory Product Certification, stipulating that from June 1, 2007, the toy products listed in the catalogue (baby carriages, electric toys, plastic toys, metal toys, ejection toys, doll toys) have not obtained the compulsory product certification certificate and the addition of China compulsory certification mark, it shall not be manufactured, sold, imported or used in other business activities. Imported toys shall be inspected in accordance with the "Import and Export Toys Inspection Regulations" before being put on the market, and shall be tested by the inspection and quarantine department, including the laboratory testing toys in accordance with the "National Toy Safety Technical Specification" or other relevant toy safety standards. Can be listed. Next, experts from the Light Industry Toy Laboratory of Yiwu Inspection and Quarantine Bureau will reveal the many hurdles that need to be broken through for us to pass the toy inspection.
The first level: mechanical and physical performance testing
Mechanical and physical performance testing is to simulate whether children have potential physical hazards in the normal use of toys and foreseeable and reasonable abuse of toys. In the case of unqualified toys, the mechanical and physical properties of unqualified occupy a higher proportion. For example, small parts are unqualified, small balls are unqualified, plastic bags or plastic films in packaging or toys are too thin, and the ropes on toy samples used by children aged 18 months and below are too long or the loops formed by ribbons and straps are too large Wait.
The detection of mechanical and physical properties is relatively simple, and there are many testing items that parents can grasp when purchasing toys. Toys intended for use by children aged 36 months and under shall not be balls or contain removable balls, as required by the Ball Testing Clause; toys intended for use by children aged 36 months and over but less than 96 months shall be provided with a warning statement if they are balls or contain removable balls, or balls that have come off after an abuse test. When choosing a toy, parents can compare the ball in the toy with the table tennis ball. If the ball in the toy is smaller than the diameter of the table tennis ball, it must belong to the category of the ball. Another example is the rope and elastic rope clause. Parents can measure the length of the rope or see if the rope formed by the rope can easily fit the child's neck. The above clauses are simple clauses, but other items, such as sound requirements, magnet flux requirements, etc., require professional laboratory testing.
The second level: combustion performance detection
Burning performance is to test the flammability of toys or materials under specific conditions to see if the toy is easy to burn when close to the fire source, resulting in burns in children. Burning performance testing is mainly aimed at head-worn toys, make-up clothing or performance clothing, toys that children can enter (such as toy tents) and plush toys.
In the process of testing combustion performance, toys or samples shall be pretreated at (20±5)℃ and (65±5)% humidity for at least 7h. After the pretreatment is completed, the test is carried out in a test cabinet without airflow, using a comprehensive combustion instrument or a surface combustion instrument. By measuring the combustion length and combustion time, the combustion speed is calculated.
The third level: detection of migratable elements
Some toy companies use recycled raw materials such as recycled plastics to reduce costs in the production of toys, resulting in excessive detection of migratory elements in toys. These harmful elements easily through saliva, sweat, gastric juice migration into the child's body and thus endanger health. It is particularly noteworthy that these hazards are chronic, undetectable and unrecoverable relative to mechanical physical property hazards such as sharp tips. The migration of harmful substances into the body can cause children to have symptoms such as decreased resistance, poor mental status, memory loss, anemia, and hair loss. In severe cases, it can cause damage to the liver and other organs.
For the detection of migratable elements, in the process of laboratory detection, the experimenter takes samples from toys and shears them into pieces, adds simulated gastric juice (0.07mol/L hydrochloric acid solution) with 50 times the mass of the samples, oscillates at 37 ℃ for 1h and rests for 1h. After the solution is filtered, the heavy metal elements are analyzed by inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometer. Finally, the content of migratable elements in toys is calculated according to the instrument data, and the calculated value is compared with the limit value of the National Toy Safety Technical Specification to determine whether the project is qualified.
The fourth level: plasticizer detection
Phthalate plasticizers are mainly used in polyvinyl chloride materials, so that polyvinyl chloride materials from hard plastic to flexible soft plastic, play the role of plasticizer, is widely used in toys, food contact materials, medical blood bags and hose and other products. Phthalate esters can enter the body through breathing, eating and skin contact, causing harm to human health, with carcinogenic, mutagenic and reproductive toxicity.
Due to the harmfulness of phthalates, the newly revised national toy safety standard GB6675-2014 "Toy Safety" has restricted 6 common phthalates (DBP, BBP, DEHP, DNOP, DINP, DIDP), which is equivalent to the current EU regulations.
At present, the domestic testing of phthalate plasticizers in toys and children's products uses the recommended standard GB/T22048-2008 "Determination of phthalate plasticizers in PVC plastics in toys and children's products". During the detection, the sample was cut into pieces and placed in a rope extractor and extracted with dichloromethane under reflux. The extract was concentrated by rotary evaporator, purified by solid phase extraction column, and determined by GC-MS. Using the retention time and mass spectrum, the preliminary characterization of various plasticizers is carried out, and then the consistency of the ion abundance ratio in the mass spectrum is determined by the consistency of the standard, and finally, the external standard method or internal standard method is used to quantify.
There are three ways to buy toys.
With the continuous improvement of national material living standards, more and more parents like to buy imported toys for their children, and the domestic demand for imported toys has increased sharply. At the same time, with the development of the Internet and the logistics industry, the sea Amoy imported toys are favored by more and more parents. However, these Haitao toys are not necessarily specially prepared for the Chinese market, and the Haitao toys may not have Chinese logos.
The identification of toy products is an important part of the product manual, and the standard toy identification is one of the mandatory requirements of China's national standards. The toy logo is an important reference for parents to choose toys correctly. Qualified logo helps parents and children to use toys correctly and safely, and avoid injuries caused by improper use.
Toys are varied, and metrics vary. In the face of all kinds of toys, you should always tighten the string of safety when purchasing, and you can pay attention to "one look", "two tests" and "three smells".
A look: when consumers buy children's toys, they should pay attention to the logo on the toy packaging or tag, whether it indicates the manufacturer, applicable age group, safety warning, implementation standard, product certificate, etc. When selecting domestic toys, don't forget to check whether the national standard "GB" and 3C certification mark are printed. Select imported toys to see if they are printed with 3C certification marks and inspection and quarantine certificates. In addition, according to the age of children, choose toys suitable for their applicable age group.